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Table of Contents
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1. Basic Algebra Review
 1.1 Introduction

1.1.1 The Top Ten List of Mistakes
 1.2 Inequalities

1.2.1 Concepts of Inequality

1.2.2 Inequalities and Interval Notation
 1.3 Absolute Value

1.3.1 Properties of Absolute Value

1.3.2 Evaluating Absolute Value Expressions
 1.4 Exponents

1.4.1 An Introduction to Exponents

1.4.2 Evaluating Exponential Expressions

1.4.3 Applying the Rules of Exponents

1.4.4 Evaluating Expressions with Negative Exponents
 1.5 Converting between Notations

1.5.1 Converting between Decimal and Scientific Notation

1.5.2 Converting Rational Exponents and Radicals
 1.6 Radical Expressions

1.6.1 Simplifying Radical Expressions

1.6.2 Simplifying Radical Expressions with Variables

1.6.3 Rationalizing Denominators
 1.7 Polynomial Expressions

1.7.1 Determining Components and Degree

1.7.2 Adding, Subtracting, and Multiplying Polynomials

1.7.3 Multiplying Big Products

1.7.4 Using Special Products
 1.8 Factoring

1.8.1 Factoring Using the Greatest Common Factor

1.8.2 Factoring by Grouping

1.8.3 Factoring Trinomials Completely
 1.9 Factoring Patterns

1.9.1 Factoring Perfect Square Trinomials

1.9.2 Factoring the Difference of Two Squares

1.9.3 Factoring the Sums and Differences of Cubes

1.9.4 Factoring by Any Method
 1.10 Rational Expressions

1.10.1 Rational Expressions and Domain

1.10.2 Working with Fractions

1.10.3 Writing Rational Expressions in Lowest Terms
 1.11 Working with Rationals

1.11.1 Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions

1.11.2 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions

1.11.3 Rewriting Complex Fractions
 1.12 Complex Numbers

1.12.1 Introducing and Writing Complex Numbers

1.12.2 Rewriting Powers of i

1.12.3 Adding and Subtracting Complex Numbers

1.12.4 Multiplying Complex Numbers

1.12.5 Dividing Complex Numbers
2. Equations and Inequalities
 2.1 Linear Equations

2.1.1 An Introduction to Solving Equations

2.1.2 Solving a Linear Equation

2.1.3 Solving a Linear Equation with Rationals

2.1.4 Solving a Linear Equation That Has Restrictions
 2.2 Word Problems with Linear Equations: Math Topics

2.2.1 An Introduction to Solving Word Problems

2.2.2 Solving for Perimeter

2.2.3 Solving a Linear Geometry Problem

2.2.4 Solving for Consecutive Numbers

2.2.5 Solving to Find the Average
 2.3 Word Problems with Linear Equations: Applications

2.3.1 Solving for Constant Velocity

2.3.2 Solving a Problem about Work

2.3.3 Solving a Mixture Problem

2.3.4 Solving an Investment Problem

2.3.5 Solving Business Problems
 2.4 Quadratic Equations: Some Solution Techniques

2.4.1 Solving Quadratics by Factoring

2.4.2 Solving Quadratics by Completing the Square

2.4.3 Completing the Square: Another Example
 2.5 Quadratic Equations and the Quadratic Formula

2.5.1 Proving the Quadratic Formula

2.5.2 Using the Quadratic Formula

2.5.3 Predicting the Type of Solutions Using the Discriminant
 2.6 Quadratic Equations: Special Topics

2.6.1 Solving for a Squared Variable

2.6.2 Finding Real Number Restrictions

2.6.3 Solving Fancy Quadratics
 2.7 Word Problems with Quadratics: Math Topics

2.7.1 An Introduction to Word Problems with Quadratics

2.7.2 Solving a Quadratic Geometry Problem

2.7.3 Solving with the Pythagorean Theorem
 2.8 Word Problems with Quadratics: Applications

2.8.1 Solving a Motion Problem

2.8.2 Solving a Projectile Problem

2.8.3 Solving Other Problems
 2.9 Radical Equations

2.9.1 Determining Extraneous Roots

2.9.2 Solving an Equation Containing a Radical

2.9.3 Solving an Equation with Two Radicals

2.9.4 Solving an Equation with Rational Exponents
 2.10 Variation

2.10.1 An Introduction to Variation

2.10.3 Inverse Proportion
 2.11 Solving Inequalities

2.11.1 An Introduction to Solving Inequalities

2.11.2 Solving Compound Inequalities

2.11.3 More on Compound Inequalities

2.11.4 Solving Word Problems Involving Inequalities
 2.12 Inequalities: Quadratics

2.12.1 Solving Quadratic Inequalities

2.12.2 Solving Quadratic Inequalities: Another Example
 2.13 Inequalities: Rationals and Radicals

2.13.1 Solving Rational Inequalities

2.13.2 Solving Rational Inequalities: Another Example

2.13.3 Determining the Domains of Expressions with Radicals
 2.14 Absolute Value

2.14.1 Matching Number Lines with Absolute Values

2.14.2 Solving Absolute Value Equations

2.14.3 Solving Equations with Two Absolute Value Expressions

2.14.4 Solving Absolute Value Inequalities

2.14.5 Solving Absolute Value Inequalities: More Examples
3. Relations and Functions
 3.1 Graphing Basics

3.1.1 Using the Cartesian System
 3.2 Relationships between Two Points

3.2.1 Finding the Distance between Two Points

3.2.2 Finding the Second Endpoint of a Segment
 3.3 Relationships among Three Points

3.3.1 Collinearity and Distance
 3.4 Circles

3.4.1 Finding the CenterRadius Form of the Equation of a Circle

3.4.2 Finding the Center and Radius of a Circle

3.4.3 Decoding the Circle Formula

3.4.4 Solving Word Problems Involving Circles
 3.5 Graphing Equations

3.5.1 Graphing Equations by Locating Points

3.5.2 Finding the x and yIntercepts of an Equation
 3.6 Function Basics

3.6.1 Functions and the Vertical Line Test

3.6.2 Identifying Functions

3.6.3 Function Notation and Finding Function Values
 3.7 Working with Functions

3.7.1 Determining Intervals Over Which a Function Is Increasing

3.7.2 Evaluating PiecewiseDefined Functions for Given Values

3.7.3 Solving Word Problems Involving Functions
 3.8 Function Domain and Range

3.8.1 Finding the Domain and Range of a Function

3.8.2 Domain and Range: One Explicit Example

3.8.3 Satisfying the Domain of a Function
 3.9 Linear Functions: Slope

3.9.1 An Introduction to Slope

3.9.2 Finding the Slope of a Line Given Two Points

3.9.3 Interpreting Slope from a Graph

3.9.4 Graphing a Line Using Point and Slope
 3.10 Equations of a Line

3.10.1 Writing an Equation in SlopeIntercept Form

3.10.2 Writing an Equation Given Two Points

3.10.3 Writing an Equation in PointSlope Form

3.10.4 Matching a SlopeIntercept Equation with Its Graph

3.10.5 Slope for Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
 3.11 Linear Functions: Applications

3.11.1 Constructing Linear Function Models of Data

3.11.2 Linear Cost and Revenue Functions
 3.12 Graphing Functions

3.12.1 Graphing Some Important Functions

3.12.2 Graphing PiecewiseDefined Functions

3.12.3 Matching Equations with Their Graphs
 3.13 The Greatest Integer Function

3.13.1 The Greatest Integer Function

3.13.2 Graphing the Greatest Integer Function
 3.14 Quadratic Functions: Basics

3.14.1 Deconstructing the Graph of a Quadratic Function

3.14.2 NiceLooking Parabolas

3.14.3 Using Discriminants to Graph Parabolas

3.14.4 Maximum Height in the Real World
 3.15 Quadratic Functions: The Vertex

3.15.1 Finding the Vertex by Completing the Square

3.15.2 Using the Vertex to Write the Quadratic Equation

3.15.3 Finding the Maximum or Minimum of a Quadratic

3.15.4 Graphing Parabolas
 3.16 Manipulating Graphs: Shifts and Stretches

3.16.1 Shifting Curves along Axes

3.16.2 Shifting or Translating Curves along Axes

3.16.3 Stretching a Graph

3.16.4 Graphing Quadratics Using Patterns
 3.17 Manipulating Graphs: Symmetry and Reflections

3.17.1 Determining Symmetry

3.17.3 Reflecting Specific Functions
 3.18 Composite Functions

3.18.1 Using Operations on Functions

3.18.2 Composite Functions

3.18.3 Components of Composite Functions

3.18.4 Finding Functions That Form a Given Composite

3.18.5 Finding the Difference Quotient of a Function
4. Polynomial and Rational Functions
 4.1 Polynomials: Long Division

4.1.1 Using Long Division with Polynomials

4.1.2 Long Division: Another Example
 4.2 Polynomials: Synthetic Division

4.2.1 Using Synthetic Division with Polynomials

4.2.2 More Synthetic Division
 4.3 The Remainder Theorem

4.3.1 The Remainder Theorem

4.3.2 More on the Remainder Theorem
 4.4 The Factor Theorem

4.4.1 The Factor Theorem and Its Uses

4.4.2 Factoring a Polynomial Given a Zero
 4.5 The Rational Zero Theorem

4.5.1 Presenting the Rational Zero Theorem

4.5.2 Considering Possible Solutions
 4.6 Zeros of Polynomials

4.6.1 Finding Polynomials Given Zeros, Degree, and One Point

4.6.2 Finding all Zeros and Multiplicities of a Polynomial

4.6.3 Finding the Real Zeros for a Polynomial

4.6.4 Using Descartes' Rule of Signs

4.6.5 Finding the Zeros of a Polynomial from Start to Finish
 4.7 Graphing Simple Polynomial Functions

4.7.1 Matching Graphs to Polynomial Functions

4.7.2 Sketching the Graphs of Basic Polynomial Functions
 4.8 Rational Functions

4.8.1 Understanding Rational Functions

4.8.2 Basic Rational Functions
 4.9 Graphing Rational Functions

4.9.1 Vertical Asymptotes

4.9.2 Horizontal Asymptotes

4.9.3 Graphing Rational Functions

4.9.4 Graphing Rational Functions: More Examples
5. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
 5.1 Function Inverses

5.1.1 Understanding Inverse Functions

5.1.2 The Horizontal Line Test

5.1.3 Are Two Functions Inverses of Each Other?

5.1.4 Graphing the Inverse
 5.2 Finding Function Inverses

5.2.1 Finding the Inverse of a Function

5.2.2 Finding the Inverse of a Function with Higher Powers
 5.3 Exponential Functions

5.3.1 An Introduction to Exponential Functions

5.3.2 Graphing Exponential Functions: Useful Patterns

5.3.3 Graphing Exponential Functions: More Examples
 5.4 Applying Exponential Functions

5.4.1 Using Properties of Exponents to Solve Exponential Equations

5.4.2 Finding Present Value and Future Value

5.4.3 Finding an Interest Rate to Match Given Goals
 5.5 The Number e

5.5.2 Applying Exponential Functions
 5.6 Logarithmic Functions

5.6.1 An Introduction to Logarithmic Functions

5.6.2 Converting between Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
 5.7 Solving Logarithmic Functions

5.7.1 Finding the Value of a Logarithmic Function

5.7.2 Solving for x in Logarithmic Equations

5.7.3 Graphing Logarithmic Functions

5.7.4 Matching Logarithmic Functions with Their Graphs
 5.8 Properties of Logarithms

5.8.1 Properties of Logarithms

5.8.2 Expanding a Logarithmic Expression Using Properties

5.8.3 Combining Logarithmic Expressions
 5.9 Evaluating Logarithms

5.9.1 Evaluating Logarithmic Functions Using a Calculator

5.9.2 Using the Change of Base Formula
 5.10 Applying Logarithmic Functions

5.10.2 The Distance Modulus Formula
 5.11 Solving Exponential and Logarithmic Equations

5.11.1 Solving Exponential Equations

5.11.2 Solving Logarithmic Equations

5.11.3 Solving Equations with Logarithmic Exponents
 5.12 Applying Exponents and Logarithms
 5.13 Word Problems Involving Exponential Growth and Decay

5.13.1 An Introduction to Exponential Growth and Decay

5.13.3 Newton's Law of Cooling

5.13.4 Continuously Compounded Interest
6. The Trigonometric Functions
 6.1 Angles and Radian Measure

6.1.1 Finding the Quadrant in Which an Angle Lies

6.1.2 Finding Coterminal Angles

6.1.3 Finding the Complement and Supplement of an Angle

6.1.4 Converting between Degrees and Radians

6.1.5 Using the Arc Length Formula
 6.2 Right Angle Trigonometry

6.2.1 An Introduction to the Trigonometric Functions

6.2.2 Evaluating Trigonometric Functions for an Angle in a Right Triangle

6.2.3 Finding an Angle Given the Value of a Trigonometric Function

6.2.4 Using Trigonometric Functions to Find Unknown Sides of Right Triangles

6.2.5 Finding the Height of a Building
 6.3 The Trigonometric Functions

6.3.1 Evaluating Trigonometric Functions for an Angle in the Coordinate Plane

6.3.2 Evaluating Trigonometric Functions Using the Reference Angle

6.3.3 Finding the Value of Trigonometric Functions Given Information about the Values of Other Trigonometric Functions

6.3.4 Trigonometric Functions of Important Angles
 6.4 Graphing Sine and Cosine Functions

6.4.1 An Introduction to the Graphs of Sine and Cosine Functions

6.4.2 Graphing Sine or Cosine Functions with Different Coefficients

6.4.3 Finding Maximum and Minimum Values and Zeros of Sine and Cosine

6.4.4 Solving Word Problems Involving Sine or Cosine Functions
 6.5 Graphing Sine and Cosine Functions with Vertical and Horizontal Shifts

6.5.1 Graphing Sine and Cosine Functions with Phase Shifts

6.5.2 Fancy Graphing: Changes in Period, Amplitude, Vertical Shift, and Phase Shift
 6.6 Graphing Other Trigonometric Functions

6.6.1 Graphing the Tangent, Secant, Cosecant, and Cotangent Functions

6.6.2 Fancy Graphing: Tangent, Secant, Cosecant, and Cotangent

6.6.3 Identifying a Trigonometric Function from its Graph
 6.7 Inverse Trigonometric Functions

6.7.1 An Introduction to Inverse Trigonometric Functions

6.7.2 Evaluating Inverse Trigonometric Functions

6.7.3 Solving an Equation Involving an Inverse Trigonometric Function

6.7.4 Evaluating the Composition of a Trigonometric Function and Its Inverse

6.7.5 Applying Trigonometric Functions: Is He Speeding?
7. Trigonometric Identities
 7.1 Basic Trigonometric Identities

7.1.1 Fundamental Trigonometric Identities

7.1.2 Finding All Function Values
 7.2 Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

7.2.1 Simplifying a Trigonometric Expression Using Trigonometric Identities

7.2.2 Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions Involving Fractions

7.2.3 Simplifying Products of Binomials Involving Trigonometric Functions

7.2.4 Factoring Trigonometric Expressions

7.2.5 Determining Whether a Trigonometric Function Is Odd, Even, or Neither
 7.3 Proving Trigonometric Identities

7.3.1 Proving an Identity

7.3.2 Proving an Identity: Other Examples
 7.4 Solving Trigonometric Equations

7.4.1 Solving Trigonometric Equations

7.4.2 Solving Trigonometric Equations by Factoring

7.4.3 Solving Trigonometric Equations with Coefficients in the Argument

7.4.4 Solving Trigonometric Equations Using the Quadratic Formula

7.4.5 Solving Word Problems Involving Trigonometric Equations
 7.5 The Sum and Difference Identities

7.5.1 Identities for Sums and Differences of Angles

7.5.2 Using Sum and Difference Identities

7.5.3 Using Sum and Difference Identities to Simplify an Expression
 7.6 DoubleAngle Identities

7.6.1 Confirming a DoubleAngle Identity

7.6.2 Using DoubleAngle Identities

7.6.3 Solving Word Problems Involving MultipleAngle Identities
 7.7 Other Advanced Identities

7.7.1 Using a Cofunction Identity

7.7.2 Using a PowerReducing Identity

7.7.3 Using HalfAngle Identities to Solve a Trigonometric Equation
8. Applications of Trigonometry
 8.1 The Law of Sines

8.1.2 Solving a Triangle Given Two Sides and One Angle

8.1.3 Solving a Triangle (SAS): Another Example

8.1.4 The Law of Sines: An Application
 8.2 The Law of Cosines

8.2.2 The Law of Cosines (SSS)

8.2.3 The Law of Cosines (SAS): An Application
 8.3 Vector Basics

8.3.1 An Introduction to Vectors

8.3.2 Finding the Magnitude and Direction of a Vector

8.3.3 Vector Addition and Scalar Multiplication
 8.4 Components of Vectors and Unit Vectors

8.4.1 Finding the Components of a Vector

8.4.2 Finding a Unit Vector

8.4.3 Solving Word Problems Involving Velocity or Forces
 8.5 Complex Numbers in Trigonometric Form

8.5.1 Graphing a Complex Number and Finding Its Absolute Value

8.5.2 Expressing a Complex Number in Trigonometric or Polar Form

8.5.3 Multiplying and Dividing Complex Numbers in Trigonometric or Polar Form
 8.6 Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers

8.6.1 Using DeMoivre's Theorem to Raise a Complex Number to a Power

8.6.2 Roots of Complex Numbers

8.6.3 More Roots of Complex Numbers
 8.7 Polar Coordinates

8.7.1 An Introduction to Polar Coordinates

8.7.2 Converting between Polar and Rectangular Coordinates

8.7.3 Graphing Simple Polar Equations
9. Systems of Equations and Matrices
 9.1 Linear Systems of Equations

9.1.1 An Introduction to Linear Systems

9.1.2 Solving a System by Substitution

9.1.3 Solving a System by Elimination
 9.2 Linear Systems of Equations in Three Variables

9.2.1 An Introduction to Linear Systems in Three Variables

9.2.2 Solving Linear Systems in Three Variables

9.2.3 Solving Inconsistent Systems

9.2.4 Solving Dependent Systems

9.2.5 Solving Systems with Two Equations
 9.3 Applying Linear Systems

9.3.2 Solving with Partial Fractions
 9.4 Nonlinear Systems

9.4.1 Solving Nonlinear Systems Using Elimination

9.4.2 Solving Nonlinear Systems by Substitution
 9.5 Matrices

9.5.1 An Introduction to Matrices

9.5.2 The Arithmetic of Matrices

9.5.3 Multiplying Matrices by a Scalar

9.5.4 Multiplying Matrices
 9.6 The GaussJordan Method of Solving Matrices

9.6.1 Using the GaussJordan Method

9.6.2 Using GaussJordan: Another Example
 9.7 Evaluating Determinants

9.7.1 Evaluating 2x2 Determinants

9.7.2 Evaluating nxn Determinants

9.7.3 Applying Determinants
 9.8 Cramer's Rule

9.8.1 Using Cramer's Rule

9.8.2 Using Cramer's Rule in a 3x3 Matrix
 9.9 Inverses and Matrices

9.9.1 An Introduction to Inverses

9.9.2 Inverses: 2x2 Matrices

9.9.3 Another Look at 2x2 Inverses

9.9.4 Inverses: 3x3 Matrices

9.9.5 Solving a System of Equations with Inverses
 9.10 Working with Inequalities

9.10.1 An Introduction to Graphing Linear Inequalities

9.10.2 Graphing Linear and Nonlinear Inequalities

9.10.3 Graphing the Solution Set of a System of Inequalities
 9.11 Linear Programming

9.11.1 Solving for MaximaMinima

9.11.2 Applying Linear Programming
10. Special Topics
 10.1 Conic Sections: Parabolas

10.1.1 An Introduction to Conic Sections

10.1.2 An Introduction to Parabolas

10.1.3 Determining Information about a Parabola from Its Equation

10.1.4 Writing an Equation for a Parabola
 10.2 Conic Sections: Ellipses

10.2.1 An Introduction to Ellipses

10.2.2 Finding the Equation for an Ellipse

10.2.3 Applying Ellipses: Satellites
 10.3 Conic Sections: Hyperbolas

10.3.1 An Introduction to Hyperbolas

10.3.2 Finding the Equation for a Hyperbola

10.3.3 Applying Hyperbolas: Navigation
 10.4 Conic Sections

10.4.1 Identifying a Conic
 10.5 The Binomial Theorem

10.5.1 Using the Binomial Theorem

10.5.2 Binomial Coefficients
 10.6 Sequences

10.6.1 Understanding Sequence Problems

10.6.2 Solving Problems Involving Arithmetic Sequences

10.6.3 Solving Problems Involving Geometric Sequences
 10.7 Induction

10.7.1 Proving Formulas Using Mathematical Induction

10.7.2 Examples of Induction
 10.8 Combinations and Probability

10.8.1 Solving Problems Involving Permutations

10.8.2 Solving Problems Involving Combinations

10.8.3 Independent Events

10.8.4 Inclusive and Exclusive Events
About the Author
Edward Burger
Williams College
Edward Burger, Professor of Mathematics at Williams College, earned his Ph.D. at the University of Texas at Austin, having graduated summa cum laude with distinction in mathematics from Connecticut College.
He has also taught at UTAustin and the University of Colorado at Boulder, and he served as a fellow at the University of Waterloo in Canada and at Macquarie University in Australia. Prof. Burger has won many awards, including the 2001 Haimo Award for Distinguished Teaching of Mathematics, the 2004 Chauvenet Prize, and the 2006 Lester R. Ford Award, all from the Mathematical Association of America. In 2006, Reader's Digest listed him in the "100 Best of America". After completing his tenure as Gaudino Scholar at Williams, he was named Lissack Professor for Social Responsibility and Personal Ethics.
Prof. Burger is the author of over 50 articles, videos, and books, including the trade book, Coincidences, Chaos, and All That Math Jazz: Making Light of Weighty Ideas and of the textbook The Heart of Mathematics: An Invitation to Effective Thinking. He also speaks frequently to professional and public audiences, referees professional journals, and publishes articles in leading math journals, including The Journal of Number Theory and American Mathematical Monthly. His areas of specialty include number theory, Diophantine approximation, padic analysis, the geometry of numbers, and the theory of continued fractions.
Prof. Burger's unique sense of humor and his teaching expertise combine to make him the ideal presenter of Thinkwell's entertaining and informative video lectures.